Cancer is the most frequent sort of disease that affects every other person. This critical disease has a negative impact on people’s lives, causing many physical and mental changes. While cancer in men is well recognized and discussed, cancer in women is the least interesting issue for people to learn about.
In the following essay, we will learn about some of the most prevalent types of cancers that affect women.
In recent years, approximately 4-5 million women are affected from various types of cancer but the top 5 are Breast, colorectal,endometrial, lung, cervical, and ovarian cancers.
Breast cancer is a form of cancer that develops when cells in the breast proliferate uncontrolled. It is the most frequent cancer in women and the second most common cancer in the world.
Breast cancer can begin in any portion of the breast, although the milk ducts are the most commonly affected. Symptoms are,
- A lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area,
- changes in the size or form of the breast,
- dimpling or puckering of the skin,
- nipple discharge,
- The red or scaly look of the nipple or breast skin are all symptoms of breast cancer.
Age, a family history of breast cancer, certain gene mutations, radiation exposure, and hormonal factors such as early menstruation or late menopause are all risk factors for breast cancer. While some risk factors are unchangeable, lifestyle choices such as keeping a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and limiting alcohol use can help minimise the risk of developing breast cancer.
Breast cancer is often detected using imaging tests such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, and confirmed via biopsy. Depending on the stage and type of breast cancer, treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.
Colorectal cancer is a form of cancer that starts in the rectum or colon. It is the third most frequent malignancy in women and the second greatest cause of cancer-related fatalities. Colorectal cancer can strike men and women equally, and the risk rises with age.
Colorectal cancer symptoms might include
- changes in bowel habits,
- rectal bleeding,
- abdominal pain, and
- unexplained weight loss.
Yet, many patients with colorectal cancer may not exhibit any symptoms, which is why routine screening is critical.
A personal history of colorectal cancer or polyps, a family history of colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, a diet heavy in red or processed meats, physical inactivity, and obesity are all risk factors for colorectal cancer in women.
Colorectal cancer screening in women often entails a colonoscopy, which allows a doctor to check the whole colon and rectum for any symptoms of cancer or polyps. Colorectal cancer treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these techniques.
The importance of early identification and treatment in improving outcomes for women with colorectal cancer cannot be overstated. Women over the age of 50, as well as those with a family history of colorectal cancer, should see their doctor about when they should begin screening for this illness.
Endometrial carcinoma is a form of cancer that develops in the endometrium, the uterine lining. It is sometimes referred to as uterine cancer. Endometrial cancer is the most frequent kind of cancer in the female reproductive system, and it most commonly affects postmenopausal women. It can, however, occur in women who have not yet entered menopause.
Endometrial cancer has no known cause, however there are various risk factors that might raise a woman’s chance of acquiring the condition. Hormonal imbalances, such as an excess of oestrogen in the body, obesity, diabetes, a history of irregular menstrual cycles, and a family history of endometrial or colorectal cancer are examples of risk factors.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding
- bleeding between periods or after menopause,
- pelvic pain or pressure, and
- Pain during intercourse are all symptoms of endometrial cancer.
If you have these symptoms, you should consult a doctor for an assessment.
Endometrial cancer is often diagnosed with a pelvic exam, imaging tests such as an ultrasound or CT scan, and a biopsy to evaluate uterine tissue. Depending on the stage and severity of the illness, treatment options for endometrial cancer may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy. Frequent gynaecological examinations and Pap tests can aid in the early detection of endometrial cancer, when it is most curable.
Ovarian cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the ovaries, which are the female reproductive organs that generate eggs. It is the sixth largest cause of cancer mortality in women and sometimes stays unnoticed until it has spread to other regions of the body.
- pelvic discomfort,
- stomach swelling,
- trouble eating, and
- frequent urination are all indications of ovarian cancer.
These symptoms may be mistaken for those of other illnesses, making early identification difficult.
The specific aetiology of ovarian cancer is unclear, however some risk factors, such as age, family history, certain genetic abnormalities, obesity, and reproductive history, enhance a woman’s probability of acquiring the illness.
A physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scans, and blood tests to evaluate the levels of particular proteins that may suggest ovarian cancer are commonly used to make a diagnosis.
Ovarian cancer treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The particular treatment plan will be determined by the cancer’s stage and kind, as well as the individual patient’s health and preferences. A mix of therapies may be advised in some circumstances.
Cervical cancer develops in the cervix, the bottom section of the uterus that attaches to the vagina. It is the fourth most frequent cancer in women globally, and the second most prevalent cancer in women in developing countries.
Cervical cancer is caused by infection with certain kinds of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is spread through sexual contact. Smoking, having a weaker immune system, and having several sexual partners are all risk factors.
Cervical cancer may not generate any visible symptoms in its early stages. Women may suffer abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic discomfort, and pain during sex as the malignancy develops. A Pap smear or HPV test can detect abnormal changes in the cervix on a regular basis.
Treatment for cervical cancer is determined by the stage of the disease and may include surgery, radiation treatment, chemotherapy, or a combination of these methods. In some circumstances, a hysterectomy (uterine removal) may be advised. Cervical cancer is highly curable if diagnosed early, with a five-year survival rate of more than 90% for women with localised cervical cancer.
The above mentioned cancers are the common types in women. It is advisable for every woman to start screening and go through certain tests to monitor any type of cancer. This can help them in early diagnosis of the disease and can also prepare them with any kind of unforeseen circumstances.
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