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Sclerosis and its types


Sclerosis refers to the hardness or thickening of tissue in the body. It can manifest itself in a variety of organs and tissues, including the skin, blood vessels, and neurological system. Sclerosis can cause neurological symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, and trouble with coordination when it affects the nerve system.

Sclerosis and its types

sclerosis destroying the nerve fiber in the brain and spinal cord

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequent type of sclerosis that affects the nerve system. MS is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body destroys the protective myelin coating that protects nerve fibres in the brain and spinal cord. This injury impairs brain-to-body communication, resulting in a variety of symptoms such as muscle weakness, visual issues, and weariness.

While multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most well-known type of sclerosis affecting the neurological system, other types of sclerosis can damage the body’s tissues and organs. Atherosclerosis, for example, is a disorder in which plaque buildup in the arteries narrows and hardens them, increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. Scleroderma is another type of sclerosis that causes the skin and connective tissues to thicken and stiffen.

While there is no cure for multiple sclerosis, medications are available to alleviate symptoms and delay the course of the disease. Treatments for MS may include anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy to enhance movement and balance, and lifestyle changes to control fatigue and other symptoms.

Types of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classified into four types

Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS)

This is the most common kind of MS, affecting around 85% of those who have it. People with RRMS have relapses, or periods of new or worsening symptoms, followed by remissions, or times when symptoms improve or cease. Relapses might last days or weeks and be followed by full or partial recovery.

Secondary progressive MS (SPMS)

 This type of MS occurs in persons who have had RRMS for a long time. People with SPMS have a gradual worsening of symptoms and disability, with or without relapses.

Primary progressive MS (PPMS)

Primary progressive Multiple sclerosis is a less frequent kind of MS that affects roughly 10-15% of patients with MS. Those with PPMS endure a progressive deterioration of symptoms from the disease’s onset, with no periods of remission.

Progressive-relapsing MS (PRMS)

This is the least frequent kind of MS, accounting for around 5% of all cases. People with PRMS endure a steady deterioration of symptoms from the disease’s onset, with periodic relapses and periods of remission.

MS can also be characterised as active or inactive based on whether or not there is evidence of new or continuous disease activity.Active MS refers to periods of relapse or evidence of new brain lesions, while inactive MS refers to periods of stability or remission. Your healthcare provider can help determine the type and activity of your MS and develop an appropriate treatment plan.


MS symptoms can vary greatly based on the location and extent of nerve damage, as well as the disease’s severity. Here are some of the most frequent MS symptoms:

  • Fatigue: Even with limited physical or mental exertion, many persons with Multiple sclerosis experience significant exhaustion.
  • Numbness or tingling: MS can induce numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in many places of the body.
  • Muscle weakness: Multiple sclerosis can cause muscle weakness, particularly in the legs, which can impair balance and coordination.
  • Vision problem: vision difficulties such as impaired vision, double vision, or even partial or total blindness in one eye can be caused by Multiple sclerosis.
  • Difficulties with balance and coordination: MS can impair one’s ability to walk and keep balance, increasing the risk of falling.
  • Bladder and bowel problems: Multiple sclerosis can cause bladder and bowel dysfunction, such as urine urgency or incontinence, as well as constipation.
  • Cognitive issues: MS can induce cognitive issues such as memory, attention, and problem-solving difficulties.
  • Emotional changes: MS can produce emotional changes such as melancholy, anxiety, and mood swings.

It is crucial to know that MS symptoms can appear and disappear, and they can be moderate or severe. Some persons with MS may only have a few symptoms, but others may have a wide range of symptoms that greatly impair their quality of life. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

The causes of Multiple sclerosis

The precise cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown, however it is thought to be a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. The following are some of the factors that may contribute to the development of MS:

Genetics: Multiple sclerosis is not directly inherited, although it is thought that some genes may raise a person’s propensity to developing the condition.

Immune system dysfunction: MS is assumed to be an autoimmune condition in which the immune system assaults the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibres in the central nervous system by mistake.

Environmental variables: A variety of environmental factors, such as exposure to certain viruses, such as the Epstein-Barr virus, and vitamin D insufficiency, may contribute to the development of MS.

Age and sex: MS is most typically diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 40, and it affects women more than males.

Geography: Geographical areas where MS is more widespread include Northern Europe, North America, and parts of Australia and New Zealand.

It is important to note that, while these factors may raise a person’s risk of having MS, not everyone who is at risk will develop the condition, and MS can develop even in the absence of any recognized risk factors. 


Multiple sclerosis (MS) can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms are similar to those of other neurological disorders. Following are some steps that doctors may take to diagnose MS:

  • Medical history and physical examination. The healthcare professional will begin with a complete medical history, including a discussion of symptoms, followed by a thorough physical examination.
  • The healthcare professional will also perform a neurological exam to assess reflexes, strength, coordination, balance, and sensory function.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans of the brain and spinal cord can aid in the detection of regions of inflammation or demyelination, both of which are symptoms of MS.
  • A lumbar puncture, often known as a spinal tap, can aid in the detection of abnormalities in the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • The evoked potential test evaluates the electrical impulses produced by the brain and nerves in response to stimulation and can aid in the detection of anomalies that may suggest MS.
  • Blood tests may be done to rule out other illnesses that cause symptoms similar to MS, such as Lyme diseases.

It is worth mentioning that MS can be difficult to diagnose, and it may take numerous tests and visits to healthcare experts before a diagnosis is reached.

While many people can receive treatment and diagnosis for the condition at any location, it is preferable to receive treatment from an expert at certain hospitals to ensure that the affected person is disease free. As a result, MediPocket World has taken the effort to connect Indian patients with leading specialists in the United States. You can now receive premium healthcare directly from the United States from the comfort of your own home. Register now to find out more.


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